ATMOSPHERE PROPERTIES


Physical Properties of U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 in SI Units
Altitude
(meters)
Temperature
(K)
Pressure
(Pa)
Density
(kg/m3)
Viscosity
(N-s/m2)
-2,000301.15 1.27774E+51.47808 1.87630E-5
-1,000294.65 1.13929E+51.34700 1.84434E-5
0288.15 1.01325E+51.22500 1.81206E-5
1,000281.65 8.98746E+41.11164 1.77943E-5
2,000275.15 7.94952E+41.00649 1.74645E-5
3,000268.65 7.01085E+49.09122E-1 1.71311E-5
4,000262.15 6.16402E+48.19129E-1 1.67940E-5
5,000255.65 5.40199E+47.36116E-1 1.64531E-5
6,000249.15 4.71810E+46.59697E-1 1.61084E-5
7,000242.65 4.10607E+45.89501E-1 1.57596E-5
8,000236.15 3.55998E+45.25168E-1 1.54068E-5
9,000229.65 3.07425E+44.66348E-1 1.50498E-5
10,000223.15 2.64363E+44.12707E-1 1.46884E-5
12,000216.65 1.93304E+43.10828E-1 1.43226E-5
15,000216.65 1.20446E+41.93674E-1 1.43226E-5
20,000216.65 5.47489E+38.80349E-2 1.43226E-5
25,000221.65 2.51102E+33.94658E-2 1.46044E-5
30,000226.65 1.17187E+31.80119E-2 1.48835E-5
35,000237.05 5.58924E+28.21392E-3 1.54559E-5
40,000251.05 2.77522E+23.85101E-3 1.62096E-5
45,000265.05 1.43135E+21.88129E-3 1.69449E-5
50,000270.65 7.59448E+19.77525E-4 1.72341E-5
60,000245.45 2.03143E+12.88321E-4 1.59104E-5
70,000217.45 4.634227.42430E-5 1.43679E-5
80,000196.65 8.86280E-11.57005E-5 1.31682E-5
84,852186.95 3.73384E-16.95788E-6 1.25915E-5
Basic Assumptions
Air is a clean, dry, perfect gas mixture; Specific heat ratio = 1.40; Molecular weight to 86 km = 28.9644
Principal sea-level constituents: N2–78.084%, O2–20.9476%, Ar–0.934%, CO2–0.0314%, Ne–0.001818%, He–0.000524%, CH4–0.0002%

See bottom of page for U.S. units


MSISE-90 Model of Earth's Upper Atmosphere
Altitude
(km)
Low Solar Activity Mean Solar Activity Extremely High Solar Activity
Temp.
(K)
Density
(kg/m3)
Pressure
(Pa)
Mol. Wt.
(kg/mol)
Temp.
(K)
Density
(kg/m3)
Pressure
(Pa)
Mol. Wt.
(kg/mol)
Temp.
(K)
Density
(kg/m3)
Pressure
(Pa)
Mol. Wt.
(kg/mol)
0300.25111.17E+00 1.01E+0528.9502300.2511 1.17E+001.01E+0528.9502 300.25111.16E+009.98E+04 28.9502
20206.20859.48E-02 5.62E+0328.9502206.2085 9.49E-02 5.62E+0328.9502 206.20859.41E-025.57E+03 28.9502
40257.69794.07E-03 3.01E+0228.9502257.6979 4.07E-033.02E+0228.9502 257.69794.04E-032.99E+02 28.9502
60244.12123.31E-04 2.32E+0128.9502244.1212 3.31E-042.32E+0128.9502 244.12123.28E-042.30E+01 28.9502
80203.10651.69E-05 9.81E-0129.1353196.3636 1.68E-059.45E-0129.0175 172.21461.68E-058.42E-01 28.5290
100168.72195.77E-07 2.89E-0228.0036184.0160 5.08E-072.81E-0227.7137 297.33382.78E-072.63E-02 26.1997
120356.86691.70E-08 1.92E-0326.3948374.9715 1.80E-082.17E-0325.8745 430.83852.34E-083.55E-03 23.6456
140545.85942.96E-09 5.37E-0425.0665635.5703 3.26E-097.03E-0424.5349 875.91744.93E-091.61E-03 22.3209
160630.06529.65E-10 2.13E-0423.7884787.5532 1.18E-093.31E-0423.4225 1,143.54262.23E-099.90E-04 21.4577
180667.86623.90E-10 9.62E-0522.5037877.6729 5.51E-101.80E-0422.4106 1,314.34271.28E-096.76E-04 20.7706
200684.91871.75E-10 4.70E-0521.2516931.2806 2.91E-101.05E-0421.4734 1,423.64698.28E-104.86E-04 20.1836
220692.64878.47E-11 2.43E-0520.0935963.2701 1.66E-106.44E-0520.6108 1,493.78645.69E-103.60E-04 19.6664
240696.16974.31E-11 1.31E-0519.0789982.4191 9.91E-114.09E-0519.8292 1,538.91544.08E-102.72E-04 19.2046
260697.78112.30E-11 7.31E-0618.2300993.9173 6.16E-112.66E-0519.1337 1,568.02943.00E-102.08E-04 18.7901
280698.52201.27E-11 4.20E-0617.54021,000.8427 3.94E-111.77E-0518.5256 1,586.86132.25E-101.61E-04 18.4178
300698.86447.22E-12 2.47E-0616.98301,005.0267 2.58E-111.20E-0518.0015 1,599.07431.71E-101.26E-04 18.0839
320699.02334.21E-12 1.48E-0616.52141,007.5620 1.72E-118.20E-0617.5537 1,607.01541.32E-109.93E-05 17.7852
340699.09732.50E-12 9.01E-0716.11471,009.1030 1.16E-115.69E-0617.1721 1,612.19201.03E-107.86E-05 17.5186
360699.13201.51E-12 5.57E-0715.72191,010.0423 7.99E-123.98E-0616.8449 1,615.57518.05E-116.26E-05 17.2812
380699.14839.20E-13 3.50E-0715.30281,010.6166 5.55E-122.81E-0616.5597 1,617.79166.35E-115.01E-05 17.0699
400699.15615.68E-13 2.23E-0714.81851,010.9688 3.89E-122.01E-0616.3044 1,619.24765.04E-114.02E-05 16.8818
420699.15973.54E-13 1.45E-0714.23321,011.1853 2.75E-121.44E-0616.0669 1,620.20624.02E-113.25E-05 16.7142
440699.16152.23E-13 9.61E-0813.51811,011.3190 1.96E-121.04E-0615.8360 1,620.83903.23E-112.63E-05 16.5643
460699.16231.42E-13 6.54E-0812.65811,011.4014 1.40E-127.55E-0715.6008 1,621.25772.60E-112.13E-05 16.4297
480699.16279.20E-14 4.59E-0811.65941,011.4526 1.01E-125.53E-0715.3508 1,621.53542.10E-111.73E-05 16.3079
500699.16296.03E-14 3.32E-0810.55471,011.4845 7.30E-134.07E-0715.0760 1,621.72001.70E-111.42E-05 16.1967
520699.16304.03E-14 2.49E-089.40061,011.5043 5.31E-133.03E-0714.7669 1,621.84301.38E-111.16E-05 16.0940
540699.16302.75E-14 1.94E-088.26571,011.5168 3.88E-132.27E-0714.4148 1,621.92531.13E-119.50E-06 15.9980
560699.16311.93E-14 1.55E-087.21411,011.5245 2.85E-131.71E-0714.0125 1,621.98039.21E-127.81E-06 15.9067
580699.16311.39E-14 1.28E-086.29041,011.5294 2.11E-131.31E-0713.5547 1,622.01727.55E-126.44E-06 15.8187
600699.16311.03E-14 1.09E-085.51491,011.5325 1.56E-131.01E-0713.0389 1,622.04216.20E-125.31E-06 15.7321
620699.16317.90E-15 9.40E-094.88641,011.5345 1.17E-137.89E-0812.4665 1,622.05885.10E-124.40E-06 15.6457
640699.16316.24E-15 8.27E-094.38911,011.5357 8.79E-146.24E-0811.8428 1,622.07024.20E-123.65E-06 15.5578
660699.16315.06E-15 7.36E-094.00121,011.5365 6.65E-145.01E-0811.1779 1,622.07783.47E-123.03E-06 15.4672
680699.16314.21E-15 6.62E-093.69991,011.5370 5.08E-144.07E-0810.4854 1,622.08302.88E-122.52E-06 15.3725
700699.16313.58E-15 6.00E-093.46481,011.5374 3.91E-143.36E-089.7818 1,622.08652.38E-122.11E-06 15.2723
720699.16313.09E-15 5.48E-093.27891,011.5375 3.04E-142.82E-089.0847 1,622.08901.98E-121.76E-06 15.1653
740699.16312.70E-15 5.02E-093.12891,011.5377 2.39E-142.39E-088.4111 1,622.09061.65E-121.48E-06 15.0503
760699.16312.39E-15 4.63E-093.00491,011.5377 1.90E-142.06E-087.7753 1,622.09181.37E-121.24E-06 14.9260
780699.16312.13E-15 4.28E-092.89961,011.5378 1.53E-141.79E-087.1884 1,622.09251.15E-121.05E-06 14.7912
800699.16311.91E-15 3.96E-092.80751,011.5378 1.25E-141.58E-086.6572 1,622.09309.59E-138.84E-07 14.6447
820699.16311.73E-15 3.68E-092.72491,011.5378 1.03E-141.40E-086.1849 1,622.09348.04E-137.48E-07 14.4854
840699.16311.56E-15 3.43E-092.64921,011.5379 8.64E-151.26E-085.7711 1,622.09366.74E-136.36E-07 14.3123
860699.16311.42E-15 3.21E-092.57841,011.5379 7.32E-151.14E-085.4132 1,622.09395.67E-135.42E-07 14.1244
880699.16311.30E-15 3.00E-092.51131,011.5379 6.28E-151.04E-085.1066 1,622.09404.77E-134.63E-07 13.9210
900699.16311.18E-15 2.81E-092.44701,011.5379 5.46E-159.47E-094.8460 1,622.09404.03E-133.97E-07 13.7015


Atmospheric Scale Height & Density, to 35,786 km
Altitude
(km)
Scale Height
(km)
Atmospheric Density
Mean
(kg/m3)
Maximum
(kg/m3)
08.4 1.2251.225
1005.9 5.25E-75.75E-7
15025.5 1.73E-91.99E-9
20037.5 2.41E-103.65E-10
25044.8 5.97E-111.20E-10
30050.3 1.87E-114.84E-11
35054.8 6.66E-122.18E-11
40058.2 2.62E-121.05E-11
45061.3 1.09E-125.35E-12
50064.5 4.76E-132.82E-12
55068.7 2.14E-131.53E-12
60074.8 9.89E-148.46E-13
65084.4 4.73E-144.77E-13
70099.3 2.36E-142.73E-13
750121 1.24E-141.59E-13
800151 6.95E-159.41E-14
850188 4.22E-155.67E-14
900226 2.78E-153.49E-14
950263 1.98E-152.21E-14
1,000296 1.49E-151.43E-14
1,250408 5.70E-162.82E-15
1,500516 2.79E-161.16E-15
2,000829 9.09E-173.80E-16
2,5001220 4.23E-171.54E-16
3,0001590 2.54E-177.09E-17
3,5001900 1.77E-173.67E-17
4,0002180 1.34E-172.11E-17
4,5002430 1.06E-171.34E-17
5,0002690 8.62E-189.30E-18
6,0003200 6.09E-185.41E-18
7,0003750 4.56E-183.74E-18
8,0004340 3.56E-182.87E-18
9,0004970 2.87E-182.34E-18
10,0005630 2.37E-181.98E-18
15,0009600 1.21E-181.16E-18
20,00014600 7.92E-198.42E-19
25,00020700 5.95E-196.81E-19
30,00027800 4.83E-195.84E-19
35,00036000 4.13E-195.21E-19
35,78637300 4.04E-195.12E-19


Physical Properties of U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 in U.S. Units
Altitude
(feet)
Temperature
(oR)
Pressure
(psia)
Density
(slug/ft3)
Viscosity
(lb-s/ft2)
-6,000540.07 18.17492.82344E-3 3.90735E-7
-3,000529.37 16.36072.59297E-3 3.84625E-7
0518.67 14.69592.37717E-3 3.78456E-7
5,000500.84 12.22772.04834E-3 3.68041E-7
10,000483.01 10.10651.75549E-3 3.57454E-7
15,000465.18 8.293541.49581E-3 3.46688E-7
20,000447.35 6.753431.26659E-3 3.35735E-7
25,000429.52 5.453551.06526E-3 3.24588E-7
30,000411.69 4.364138.89378E-4 3.13240E-7
35,000393.85 3.458037.36627E-4 3.01681E-7
40,000389.97 2.720035.85189E-4 2.99135E-7
45,000389.97 2.138974.60180E-4 2.99135E-7
50,000389.97 1.682043.61876E-4 2.99135E-7
55,000389.97 1.322722.84571E-4 2.99135E-7
60,000389.97 1.040162.23781E-4 2.99135E-7
70,000392.37 6.43641E-11.37625E-4 3.00712E-7
80,000397.86 4.00519E-18.44590E-5 3.04297E-7
100,000408.83 1.58114E-13.24473E-5 3.11406E-7
120,000434.63 6.47290E-21.24948E-5 3.27808E-7
140,000465.36 2.81301E-25.07154E-6 3.46797E-7
160,000487.17 1.28682E-22.21610E-6 3.59941E-7
180,000467.70 5.90183E-31.05871E-6 3.48219E-7
200,000436.97 2.57592E-34.94576E-7 3.29273E-7
225,000398.57 8.38438E-41.76492E-7 3.04757E-7
250,000367.65 2.45671E-45.60626E-8 2.84296E-7
278,386336.50 5.41542E-51.35020E-8 2.62978E-7


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